Module Four works well for beginning to intermediate ESL level

students if certain adaptations are implemented. Suggested

adaptions are listed below.


Suggested Adaptations


Suggestions for the focus activity


Vocabulary words and transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction to the module


Vocabulary words and summary of a reading on Communication Across Cultures


Transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction to the next section of the module


Vocabulary words and summary of a Reading on Different Styles of Communication in Different Cultures


Suggestions for Activities of “Give me a hand” and Final Reflection


Grammar: Focus using photos as stimulus


This focus activity at the beginning of the module needs little or no adaptation for ESL students.


However, it can be expanded to include specific cultural messages in the following

exercise. Bring old magazines into class for this exercise. For beginning level

students, the photos serve as wonderful stimulus for vocabulary development. For

example, in Photo C, baby, sofa, cans, shelves, diaper as well as any other words that

students do not know.


You may want to simplify the exercise to the following:

He says,




This is a good opportunity to teach the concept of reported speech and the use of

quotation marks.


Instructions: In pairs or in triads, go through the magazines and cut

out five photographs that are interesting to you. Answer the

questions about each of the five photographs.


He/She/They say,

” I/We………..”


This is the same as in my country.

This is different from in my country.


Follow-up activity: Look for photographs from “back home”. Bring

them to class and explain the message in the photographs.


Vocabulary Words and transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction


The emphasis – the most important

The focus activity – the activity or exercise at the

beginning that shows you what

to pay attention to.

Demonstrate – to show




Now as you watch the video, listen for the vocabulary words.


Hello. In Module four, you’ll continue to look at cultural differences, but the emphasis will be on communication. In the focus activity, you began to notice that messages could be communicated non-verbally. In the next reading, you’ll learn more about the way that we human beings communicate as well as the ways that we sometimes “culture bump” in our communication.


NOTE: The discussion questions need to be explained for this level of

student. Make sure they understand that communication in this exercise and in this

chapter is not asking about their English ability or pronunciation. One way is to ask

them if they are a good communicator in their own language.


A Reading on Communication Across Cultures


Vocabulary Words


To transmit – to go from one to another

Complex – complicated, difficult

Readily – easily

Cue – hint

Timorous – fearful or shy

Suggestive – sexy

Slump – to sit or stand in a non-erect way, with shoulders and head down

Fatigued – tired

To suck – to breathe air into the mouth quickly with a small noise


Summary of A Reading on Communication Across Cultures


Communication is very complicated. People communicate all

the time, even when they do not talk. There are three ways

to communicate. One is called Verbal language. Verbal

language is using words for speaking or writing. It is

grammar, spelling, speaking, writing and reading. The

second way is Paralanguage. Paralanguage is speaking

quickly or slowly, loudly or softly or silence. The third way

is nonverbal language. Nonverbal language is using our

hands, our faces, and even our clothes to communicate.

Sometimes, when people from one culture speak to people

from another culture, they are confused because the nonverbal

or paralanguage is different. People really pay

attention to non-verbal and paralanguage more than verbal


Transcript of  Dr. Archer’s introduction to the next section of the module


Now that you’ve learned about different ways of

communicating and mis-communicating, the culture bump

experts will demonstrate some different styles of

communication. Lets watch.


Reading on Different Styles in Different Cultures


Vocabulary Words


Tend to be – probably is

Context – the surrounding, the environment

Loops – small circles

Gut instinct – feeling that something is true without knowing for sure

Process – to think about, to come to understand something


A Summary of A Reading on Different Styles of Communication

in Different Cultures


People from different cultures like to use different styles of communication. One

style is called Looping Style. In looping styles, people spend a lot of time talking

about other things before they come to the point of the conversation. (See drawing

on page 35). In other cultures, people talk very quickly about their main idea. This

is called non-looping style. People in some cultures do not speak about everything.

They think other people know already what they are thinking. These are called

high-context styles. In low-context styles, people say everything. They are not sure

if other people know what they know or not. In silent styles, people can be silent for

long periods of time. In other cultures, people do not like to be silent. In some

cultures people can talk at the same time and understand everybody. These are

called polychronic styles. In monochronic cultures, people take turns to talk.


Give me a Hand


This activity was originally designed for ESL students and

serves to point out the differences in non-verbal messages.

The greater the variety of cultures in the classroom, the better.


Final Reflection


The cartoon format works well with ESL students. Make sure

that students know the term “thought bubbles.”.

An alternative speaking exercise is to have four students role-play

the Brian and Akira cartoon. Two students play Brian and Akira and

act-out and speak their words. The other two students “pop-up”

as their thoughts. Break the rest of the class into groups of four

and have them role-play Akira and Maria and their thoughts. This

is a good structured activity for speaking as well as writing. It

works very well for students who are uncomfortable in front of a

class because it is so structured.