Module Four needs very little adaptation for upper intermediate to advanced level ESL students. Suggested adaptions are listed below.


Suggested Adaptations


Suggestions for the focus activity


Vocabulary words and transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction to the module


Vocabulary words for and Note-Taking


Exercise for A Reading on Communication Across



Transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction to the next section of the module


Vocabulary words and Note-Taking


Vocabulary words and summary of a Reading on Different Styles of Communication in Different Cultures


Suggestions for Activities of “Give me a hand” and Final Reflection


Grammar: Focus using photos as stimulus


This focus activity at the beginning of the module needs little or no adaptation for ESL students.


However, it can be expanded to include specific cultural messages in the following

exercise. Bring old magazines into class for this exercise.


Instructions: In pairs or in triads, go through the magazines and cut

out five photographs that are interesting to you. Tell what the people

in the photos seem to be saying and why. Then explain why the

message would be the same or different from your culture’s point of


Follow-up activity: Look for photographs from “back home”. Bring

them to class and explain the message in the photographs.


Vocabulary Words and transcript of Dr. Archer’s video introduction


The emphasis – the most important

The focus activity – the activity or exercise at the

beginning that shows you what

to pay attention to.

Demonstrate – to show




Now as you watch the video, listen for the vocabulary words.


Hello. In Module four, you’ll continue to look at cultural differences, but the emphasis will be on communication. In the focus activity, you began to notice that messages could be communicated non-verbally. In the next reading, you’ll learn more about the way that we human beings communicate as well as the ways that we sometimes “culture bump” in our communication.


NOTE: The discussion questions need to be explained for this level of

student. Make sure they understand that communication in this exercise and in this

chapter is not asking about their English ability or pronunciation. One way is to ask

them if they are a good communicator in their own language.



A Reading on Communication Across Cultures


Vocabulary Words


To transmit – to go from one to another

Complex – complicated, difficult

Readily – easily

Cue – hint

Timorous – fearful or shy

Suggestive – sexy

Slump – to sit or stand in a non-erect way, with shoulders and head down

Fatigued – tired

To suck – to breathe air into the mouth quickly with a small noise











Note-taking exercise on A Reading on Communication Across Cultures


Three channels of communication 


1.  Verbal










3.  Non-verbal






2. How quickly or loudly we speak.  Our intonation and stress


Transcript of  Dr. Archer’s introduction to the next section of the module


Now that you’ve learned about different ways of

communicating and mis-communicating, the culture bump

experts will demonstrate some different styles of

communication. Lets watch.


Reading on Different Styles in Different Cultures


Vocabulary Words


Tend to be – probably is

Context – the surrounding, the environment

Loops – small circles

Gut instinct – feeling that something is true without knowing for sure

Process – to think about, to come to understand something


Note-taking exercise on A Reading on Different Styles of             Communication in Different Cultures

Seven Cultural Styles of Communication 

1.  Looping Styles



3.  High Context Styles


4.  Low-Context Styles



6.  Monochronic Styles





Word form Exercise


Many words in English may have the same prefix (first part of the word).  If you understand the meaning of the prefix, it can help you understand the meaning of the word.  For example, the prefix TRANS means

    To go

As in the word



Examples of cultures that have this style. 


2. North American culture


3.  Korean and…



5.  Japanese, some African




7. Latin American, Middle Eastern


Write as many other words as possible that begin with the prefix TRANS


1.  Transportation



Give me a Hand


This activity was originally designed for ESL students and

serves to point out the differences in non-verbal messages.

The greater the variety of cultures in the classroom, the better.


Final Reflection


The cartoon format works well with ESL students. Make sure

that students know the term “thought bubbles.”.

An alternative speaking exercise is to have four students role-play

the Brian and Akira cartoon. Two students play Brian and Akira and

act-out and speak their words. The other two students “pop-up”

as their thoughts. Break the rest of the class into groups of four

and have them role-play Akira and Maria and their thoughts. This

is a good structured activity for speaking as well as writing. It

works very well for students who are uncomfortable in front of a

class because it is so structured.